Note that all long options with the exception of --options and --homedir may also be given in the configuration file after stripping off the two leading dashes.
Reads configuration from file instead of from the default per-user configuration file. The default configuration file is named dirmngr.conf and expected in the home directory.
Set the name of the home directory to dir. This option is only
effective when used on the command line. The default is
the directory named .gnupg directly below the home directory
of the user unless the environment variable
GNUPGHOME has been set
in which case its value will be used. Many kinds of data are stored within
Outputs additional information while running. You can increase the verbosity by giving several verbose commands to DIRMNGR, such as -vv.
Append all logging output to file. This is very helpful in seeing what the agent actually does. Use socket:// to log to socket.
Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a numeric value or by a keyword:
No debugging at all. A value of less than 1 may be used instead of the keyword.
Some basic debug messages. A value between 1 and 2 may be used instead of the keyword.
More verbose debug messages. A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of the keyword.
Even more detailed messages. A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of the keyword.
All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used instead of the keyword. The creation of hash tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.
How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.
Set debug flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042) or as a comma separated list of flag names. To get a list of all supported flags the single word "help" can be used. This option is only useful for debugging and the behavior may change at any time without notice.
Enable debugging of the TLS layer at level. The details of the debug level depend on the used TLS library and are not set in stone.
When running in server mode, wait n seconds before entering the actual processing loop and print the pid. This gives time to attach a debugger.
On some platforms
dirmngr is able to detect the removal of
its socket file and shutdown itself. This option disable this
self-test for debugging purposes.
Format the info output in daemon mode for use with the standard Bourne
shell respective the C-shell. The default is to guess it based on the
SHELL which is in almost all cases
Enabling this option forces loading of expired CRLs; this is only useful for debugging.
The option --use-tor switches Dirmngr and thus GnuPG into “Tor mode” to route all network access via Tor (an anonymity network). Certain other features are disabled in this mode. The effect of --use-tor cannot be overridden by any other command or even by reloading dirmngr. The use of --no-use-tor disables the use of Tor. The default is to use Tor if it is available on startup or after reloading dirmngr. The test on the availability of Tor is done by trying to connect to a SOCKS proxy at either port 9050 or 9150; if another type of proxy is listening on one of these ports, you should use --no-use-tor.
This option forces the use of the system’s standard DNS resolver code. This is mainly used for debugging. Note that on Windows a standard resolver is not used and all DNS access will return the error “Not Implemented” if this option is used. Using this together with enabled Tor mode returns the error “Not Enabled”.
When possible use a recursive resolver instead of a stub resolver.
Set the timeout for the DNS resolver to N seconds. The default are 30 seconds.
Set the timeout for HTTP and generic TCP connection attempts to N seconds. The value set with the quick variant is used when the –quick option has been given to certain Assuan commands. The quick value is capped at the value of the regular connect timeout. The default values are 15 and 2 seconds. Note that the timeout values are for each connection attempt; the connection code will attempt to connect all addresses listed for a server.
Set the size of the queue for pending connections. The default is 64.
Allow Dirmngr to connect to
https://versions.gnupg.org to get
the list of current software versions. If this option is enabled
the list is retrieved in case the local
copy does not exist or is older than 5 to 7 days. See the option
--query-swdb of the command
gpgconf for more
details. Note, that regardless of this option a version check can
always be triggered using this command:
gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'loadswdb --force' /bye
Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that
communicates with to receive keys, send keys, and search for
keys. The format of the name is a URI:
‘scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]’ The scheme is the type of keyserver:
"hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers or "ldap" for the LDAP
keyservers. Note that your particular installation of GnuPG may have
other keyserver types available as well. Keyserver schemes are
case-insensitive. After the keyserver name, optional keyserver
configuration options may be provided. These are the same as the
gpg, but apply only to this
Some keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is not always a need to send keys to more than one server. Some keyservers use round robin DNS to give a different keyserver each time you use it.
If exactly two keyservers are configured and only one is a Tor hidden service (.onion), Dirmngr selects the keyserver to use depending on whether Tor is locally running or not. The check for a running Tor is done for each new connection.
If no keyserver is explicitly configured, dirmngr will use the
built-in default of
Windows users with a keyserver running on their Active Directory
may use the short form
ldap:/// for name to access this directory.
For accessing anonymous LDAP keyservers name is in general just
ldaps://ldap.example.com. A BaseDN parameter should never be
specified. If authentication is required things are more complicated
and two methods are available:
The modern method (since version 2.2.28) is to use the very same syntax as used with the option --ldapserver. Please see over there for details; here is an example:
keyserver ldap:ldap.example.com::uid=USERNAME,ou=GnuPG Users, dc=example,dc=com:PASSWORD::starttls
The other method is to use a full URL for name; for example:
keyserver ldaps://ldap.example.com/????bindname=uid=USERNAME %2Cou=GnuPG%20Users%2Cdc=example%2Cdc=com,password=PASSWORD
Put this all on one line without any spaces and keep the ’%2C’
as given. Replace USERNAME, PASSWORD, and the ’dc’ parts
according to the instructions received from your LDAP
administrator. Note that only simple authentication
(i.e. cleartext passwords) is supported and thus using ldaps is
strongly suggested (since 2.2.28 "ldaps" defaults to port 389
and uses STARTTLS). On Windows authentication via AD can be
requested by adding
gpgNtds=1 after the fourth question
mark instead of the bindname and password parameter.
In “Tor mode” Dirmngr uses a public resolver via Tor to resolve DNS
names. If the default public resolver, which is
not be used a different one can be given using this option. Note that
a numerical IP address must be given (IPv6 or IPv4) and that no error
checking is done for ipaddr.
Disable the use of all IPv4 or IPv6 addresses.
Entirely disables the use of LDAP.
Entirely disables the use of HTTP.
When looking for the location of a CRL, the to be tested certificate usually contains so called CRL Distribution Point (DP) entries which are URLs describing the way to access the CRL. The first found DP entry is used. With this option all entries using the HTTP scheme are ignored when looking for a suitable DP.
This is similar to --ignore-http-dp but ignores entries using the LDAP scheme. Both options may be combined resulting in ignoring DPs entirely.
Ignore all OCSP URLs contained in the certificate. The effect is to force the use of the default responder.
If the environment variable
http_proxy has been set, use its
value to access HTTP servers.
Use host and port to access HTTP servers. The use of this
option overrides the environment variable
whether --honor-http-proxy has been set.
Use host and port to connect to LDAP servers. If port is omitted, port 389 (standard LDAP port) is used. This overrides any specified host and port part in a LDAP URL and will also be used if host and port have been omitted from the URL.
Never use anything else but the LDAP "proxy" as configured with
dirmngr tries to use other
configured LDAP server if the connection using the "proxy" failed.
Read the list of LDAP servers to consult for CRLs and X.509 certificates from file instead of the default per-user ldap server list file. The default value for file is dirmngr_ldapservers.conf.
This server list file contains one LDAP server per line in the format
Lines starting with a ‘#’ are comments.
Note that as usual all strings entered are expected to be UTF-8 encoded. Obviously this will lead to problems if the password has originally been encoded as Latin-1. There is no other solution here than to put such a password in the binary encoding into the file (i.e. non-ascii characters won’t show up readable).1
This is an alternative way to specify LDAP servers for CRL and X.509 certificate retrieval. If this option is used the servers configured in dirmngr_ldapservers.conf (or the file given by --ldapserverlist-file) are cleared. Note that dirmngr_ldapservers.conf is not read again by a reload signal. However, --ldapserver options are read again.
spec is either a proper LDAP URL or a colon delimited list of the form
with an optional prefix of
ldap: (but without the two slashes
which would turn this into a proper LDAP URL). FLAGS is a list
of one or more comma delimited keywords:
The default: Do not use a TLS secured connection at all; the default port is 389.
Use STARTTLS to secure the connection; the default port is 389.
Tunnel LDAP through a TLS connection; the default port is 636.
On Windows authenticate the LDAP connection using the Active Directory with the current user.
On Windows use only the A or AAAA record when resolving the LDAP server name.
Note that in an URL style specification the scheme
refers to STARTTLS and _not_ to LDAP-over-TLS.
Specify the number of seconds to wait for an LDAP query before timing out. The default are 15 seconds. 0 will never timeout.
This option makes dirmngr add any servers it discovers when validating certificates against CRLs to the internal list of servers to consult for certificates and CRLs. This option should in general not be used.
This option might be useful when trying to validate a certificate that
has a CRL distribution point that points to a server that is not
already listed in the ldapserverlist. Dirmngr will always go to this
server and try to download the CRL, but chances are high that the
certificate used to sign the CRL is located on the same server. So if
dirmngr doesn’t add that new server to list, it will often not be able
to verify the signature of the CRL unless the
option is used.
Caveat emptor: Using this option may enable denial-of-service attacks and leak search requests to unknown third parties. This is because arbitrary servers are added to the internal list of LDAP servers which in turn is used for all unspecific LDAP queries as well as a fallback for queries which did not return a result.
This option enables OCSP support if requested by the client.
OCSP requests are rejected by default because they may violate the privacy of the user; for example it is possible to track the time when a user is reading a mail.
Use url as the default OCSP Responder if the certificate does
not contain information about an assigned responder. Note, that
--ocsp-signer must also be set to a valid certificate.
Use the certificate with the fingerprint fpr to check the
responses of the default OCSP Responder. Alternatively a filename can be
given in which case the response is expected to be signed by one of the
certificates described in that file. Any argument which contains a
slash, dot or tilde is considered a filename. Usual filename expansion
takes place: A tilde at the start followed by a slash is replaced by the
HOME, no slash at start describes a relative filename
which will be searched at the home directory. To make sure that the
file is searched in the home directory, either prepend the name
with "./" or use a name which contains a dot.
If a response has been signed by a certificate described by these fingerprints no further check upon the validity of this certificate is done.
The format of the FILE is a list of SHA-1 fingerprint, one per line with optional colons between the bytes. Empty lines and lines prefix with a hash mark are ignored.
The number of seconds a skew between the OCSP responder and them local clock is accepted. Default is 600 (10 minutes).
Seconds a response is at maximum considered valid after the time given in the thisUpdate field. Default is 7776000 (90 days).
The number of seconds an OCSP response is considered valid after the time given in the NEXT_UPDATE datum. Default is 10800 (3 hours).
Do not return more that n items in one query. The default is 10.
Add oid to the list of ignored certificate extensions. The
oid is expected to be in dotted decimal form, like
18.104.22.168. This option may be used more than once. Critical
flagged certificate extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list
are treated as if they are actually handled and thus the certificate
won’t be rejected due to an unknown critical extension. Use this
option with care because extensions are usually flagged as critical
for a reason.
Entirely ignore certificates with the fingerprint fpr. As an
alternative to the fingerprint a filename can be given in which case
all certificates described in that file are ignored. Any argument
which contains a slash, dot or tilde is considered a filename. Usual
filename expansion takes place: A tilde at the start followed by a
slash is replaced by the content of
HOME, no slash at start
describes a relative filename which will be searched at the home
directory. To make sure that the file is searched in the home
directory, either prepend the name with "./" or use a name which
contains a dot. The format of such a file is a list of SHA-1
fingerprint, one per line with optional colons between the bytes.
Empty lines and lines prefixed with a hash mark are ignored.
This option is useful as a quick workaround to exclude certain certificates from the system store.
Use the root certificates in file for verification of the TLS
certificates used with
hkps (keyserver access over TLS). If
the file is in PEM format a suffix of
.pem is expected for
file. This option may be given multiple times to add more
root certificates. Tilde expansion is supported.
hkp-cacert directive is present, dirmngr will use the
gpgconf tool might be
helpful for frontends as it enables editing this configuration file using